The Public Paperfolding History Project

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The Paper Boat / Paper Boat with Three Sails / The Paper Boat Hat
 
This page attempts to record what is known about the origin and history of the traditional origami design usually known simply as the Paper Boat (though, of course, there are also many other paper boats in origami) and of the Paper Boat Hat which is simply the same design used as a hat. Please contact me if you know any of this information is incorrect or if you have any other information that should be added. Thank you.

There is a separate page for The Paper Boat Snapper.

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The Paper Boat / Paper Boat with Three Sails

Introduction

This design was known in both Western Europe and Japan at an early date. The Western European design, which has one central point or sail, was usually folded from an oblong (although occasionally from a square). There appear to be two (or possibly three) different Japanese designs, both / all of which are included on this page. One of these is similar to the European design. The other has three central points or sails and so can be called the Paper Boat with Three Sails. Two different versions of this design can be distinguished but it is possible that they are different representations of the same design. Both versions of the Paper Boat with Three Sails (if there were two versions) were probably (although not certainly) folded from squares rather than oblongs. The Utagawa Toyohiro print from 1805/10 certainly shows square paper being used.

The Western European version of the Paper Boat is the basis of the now well-known story of the Captain's Shirt where both ends of the boat and the top of the sail are torn away at various stages in a story about a shipwreck and the remainder unfolded to show that the paper is now in the form of a rather tattered shirt. This story is often associated with Lillian Oppenheimer (1898 - 1992) but I do not know whether she invented it, and if she did, when that invention took place.

In Japan

1713

The print below, which shows Paper Boats, appears in 'Oru Kokoro', which is the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999, and is said to come from 'Skotoku Hinagata' aka Shotoku 3 by Nishikawa Sukenobu, published in 1713. It does not however appear in the version of 'Shôtoku hinagata' held in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

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1716

This design featuring Paper Boats comes from the pattern book '(Chinshoku) Hinagata Miyako fuzoku' (Rare and Popular Kimono Patterns of the Capital) by Nishikawa Sukenobu, which was published in 1716.

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1723

This print showing a Paper Boat lying on the floor comes from 'Onna Fuhzoku Tama kagami' by Nishikawa Sukenobu, which was published in 1723.

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1734

This print from a picture book by Mitsonubo Hasegawa, which can be dated to between 1716 and 1734, shows two children with a Komoso and a Paper Boat with Three Sails in a terakoya (a school for the children of commoners). Source: 'Oru Kokoro', the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999.

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'Ranma Zushiki', a Japanese book of woodcuts published in 1734, contains a print that shows a group of folded paper objects, among which are two Paper Boats.

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1735

This print by Nishikawa Sukenobu is sourced from the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999. The girl at the back is holding a Paper Crane. A Paper Boat and a Sanbo are lying on the floor.

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1748

The print below is from the first volume of the illustrated book 'Ehon masu kagami' by Nishikawa Sukenobu, which was published in 1748. The subject of the print is the Hina Doll Festival and the ladies on the left are folding paper. There is a Paper Boat lying on the floor. Compare and contrast the similar print from 1723 above. There are a number of other similar prints which also show Paper Boats, but which I have not yet managed to verify or date. Details of these can be found on the page about Paperfolding in Prints by Nishikawa Sukenobu.

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1775

This print by Isoda Koryusai (1764-1788) showing a Paper Boat can be dated to around 1775 (Information from Juan Gimeno).

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1772 - 1780

This print by Kitao Shigemasa (1739 - 1820) shows a kimono patterned with Paper Boats. Source: 'Oru Kokoro', the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999. This kimono design has obvious similarities to the design from 'Skotoku Hinagata' aka Shotoku 3 by Nishikawa Sukenobu, published in 1713 (see above).

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1781

This print by Isoda Koryusai (1735 to1790), which shows a child wearing a kimono decorated with Paper Boats, comes from vol 2 of the illustrated book Konzatsu Yamato Soga, which was published in 1781.

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1785

This undated print by Torii Kiyomizo (1735 - 1785) shows a man wearing a kimono patterned with Paper Boats. It can be no later than 1785 when Torii Kiyomizo died. Source: 'Oru Kokoro', the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999.

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1793

A lady holding a Paper Boat (and another holding a Paper Crane) appears in the central panel of this triptych by Chôbunsai Eishi (1756–1829) titled 'Women in a Phoenix Boat at New Year' which can be dated to c1793. Information from Jaume Coll Guerrero.

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1804

This print by Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), which shows a woman wearing a kimono patterned with Paper Boats, comes from vol1 of the picture book 'Ehon kyoka yama mata yama' which was published in 1804.

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1805 - 1810

This print by Utagawa Toyohiro (1773–1828) shows three boys folding Paper Boats. Source: 'Oru Kokoro', the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999.

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1820

This print by Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), which shows a child wearing a kimono patterned with Paper Boats, comes from the illustrated book 'Hokusai soga' which was published in 1820.

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1804-1829

A print by Eishin Kikugawa (1787 - 1867) showing children playing various games includes two children, a boy and a girl, folding paper. The items threy have already folded are a Paper Crane, an unidentifiable box, a Paper Boat and what looks like a more complex version of the Kabuto or Samurai Helmet. Source: 'Oru Kokoro', the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999.

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1840

This print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, which is said to date from 1840, shows a mother inflating a crane while her child sits beside her holding another. A paper boat lies nearby on the floor. The small pieces of paper lying near the scissors are anachronistic since neither design requires cuts.

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1841

This print by Utagawa Kunisada, which can be dated to 1841, shows a child wearing a kimono patterned with Paper Boats. Source: 'Oru Kokoro', the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999.

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1845

There is a note in the 'Kan No Mado', usually dated to 1845, which lists a boat among those designs which are already well known and which are therefore not included in the ms (in order to spare the writer's brush). While, in the absence of a drawing, we cannot be completely certain that this note refers to the Paper Boat, it seems overwhelmingly likely that it does so.

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1847

This print known as 'Spring' from the children's four seasons series by Gorakutei Sadahiro, which can be dated to between 1830 and 1847, shows a child wearing a kimono which is patterned with Paper Cranes, Paper Boats and Star-Shaped Boxes. The child at the front is playing battledore. There is a shide hanging from the branch above them. Source: 'Oru Kokoro', the catalogue of an exhibition on paperfolding history held in Tatsuno City History and Culture Museum in 1999.

1849

This print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861), which shows a man wearing a kimono patterned with Paper Boats, comes from vol 2 of the illustrated book 'Nihon kijin den' which was published in 1849.

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1935

A picture of a version of the Paper Boat with Three Sails appears in Book Two of Origami Moyo which was published in 1935.

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In Western Europe / USA

1498

A picture illustrating a solar eclipse which, quite oddly and incidentally, seems to show two paper boats floating in a stylised sea, appears in a version of the book 'Tractatus de Sphaera Mundi' written by John Holywood, an English mathematician and astronomer, who is also known as Johannes de Sacrobosco, which was published in Paris in 1498 (not Venice in 1490 as previously stated). My thanks to Michael Assis for pointing out this error.

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1808

On Monday October 24th 1808 Jane Austen wrote a letter to her sister Cassandra which included two references to paper ships, of some undefined kind, but which, it seems to me, are most likely to have been Paper Boats:

'We do not want amusement: bilbocatch, at which George is indefatigable; spillikins, paper ships, riddles, conundrums, and cards, with watching the flow and ebb of the river, and now and then a stroll out, keep us well employed;'

And

'While I write now, George is most industriously making and naming paper ships, at which he afterwards shoots with horse-chestnuts brought from Steventon on purpose;'

Information provided by Dawn Tucker.

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c1810

According to his friend and biographer Thomas Jefferson Hogg, the romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 - 1822) had a passion for folding and sailing paper boats which he made from any paper available at hand including letters and the flyleaves of books. There is no direct evidence that these were Paper Boats but it seems likely that this was the case. Several pages of Volume 1 of Hogg's 'The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley' published in 1858, were devoted to describing this fascination, which seems to have almost amounted to an obsession.

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1838

Hans Christian Anderson's children's fantasy story 'Den standhaftige soldat' (in English 'The Steadfast Tin Soldier') includes reference to a paper boat. It was first published on October 2, 1838, along with "The Wild Swans" and "The Daisy", as part of the anthology 'Fairy Tales Told to Children New Collection'. In the story two children make a boat out of newspaper, put the tin soldier in it and send it sailing away down the gutter. The paper boat eventually sinks when it fills with water. I have not been able to find whether the original illustrations showed this aspect of the story, and if so which type of boat they showed, although from the fact it was folded from newspaper it seems likely that it was a Paper Boat. The way the boat is folded does not appear to be explained, which argues that Hans Christian Anderson probably believed it would already be familiar to his young readers.

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1859

The earliest diagrams that I am aware of for the Paper Boat occur in The Boy's Own Toymaker' by Ebenezer Landells which was published in 1859 by Griffin and Farran in London and Shephard, Clark and Brown in Boston.

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1864

Rather more sophisticated diagrams can be found in 'Spielbuch fur Knaben' by Hermann Wagner, which was published by Verlag von Otto Spamer in Leipzig in 1864, although the foreword is dated May 1863, which argues that the book was complete at that date.

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1865

The diagrams that appeared in 'Spielbuch fur Knaben' by Hermann Wagner also appear in 'Spielbuch fur Madchen' by Maria Leske (a pseudonym of Marina Krebs), which was published by Verlag von Otto Spamer in Leipzig in 1865.

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1870/1

A Paper Boat is featured in this cartoon of Felix Pyat to be found in volume 4 of the 'Collection de caricatures et de charges pour servir à l’histoire de la guerre et de la revolution de 1870-1871' held at Heidleburg University.

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1873

Diagrams for the Paper Boat appear in 'The Popular Recreator' which was published by Cassell and Co in London in 1873. The text mentions Percy Bysshe Shelley's fascination with paper boats. It is clear that the author believed that the boats habitually folded by Shelley were the classic Paper Boat design'

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1874

The third edition of 'Der Kindergarten' by Hermann Goldammer, which was published by Carl Babel in Berlin in 1874, mentions, but does not picture, a design titled 'Der Kahn' (the boat), From the context this is probably the Paper Boat.

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The design also appears:

1876

In 'Des Kindes Erste Beschaftigungsbuch' by E Barth and W Niederley, which was first published in Bielefeld and Leipzig, and the foreword of which is dated October 1876.

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The Cahier de Adele Tissot, which can be dated to 1876, contains two folded examples of Paper Boats, the lower one having a slightly larger sail.

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1880

In 'Un million de jeux et de plaisirs' by T de Moulidars, which was first published in 1880 and subsequently republished under the title 'Grande encyclopédie méthodique, universelle, illustrée, des jeux et des divertissements de l'esprit et du corps' ...

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1881

In 'Cassell's Book of Indoor Amusements, Card Games and Fireside Fun', which was published by Cassell and Co in London in 1881.

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1882

In Part Two of 'The Kindergarten Guide' by Maria Kraus Boelte and John Kraus, which was probably first published by E. Steiger and Company in New York in 1882. This version of the Paper Boat seems to be made by an unnecessarily complicated method.

The section from which this picture comes is introduced with the words 'The oblong is also used for paper-folding. Most of the Forms of Life derived from it were known before the days of our grandfathers.'

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1883

A drawing of the Paper Boat appears in a pictorial story by Apeles Mestres dated 2nd August 1883 found in his Llibre Vert III.

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1886/7

'Exercises de Travaux Manuels d'apres le journal 'L'Instruction Primaire', a book of folded examples of classwork produced by L'ecole Louis Vauquelin de Rouen in 1886-1887, includes actual examples of Paper Boats folded by pupils at the school.

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1890

John Smith gives several references to Lewis Carroll folding 'fishing boats' out of paper to entertain children, the earliest of which is from 1890. However it is more likely that the design in question was the Chinese Junk rather than the traditional Paper Boat.

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1891

In 'Pleasant Work for Busy Fingers' by Maggie Browne, which was published by Cassell and Company in London in 1891. This book is an English version of 'Des Kindes Erste Beschaftigungsbuch' enhanced by the addition of a few extra designs.

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1892

In 'Le Travail Manuel a L'ecole Primaire' by Jully & Rocheron, which was published by Librairie Classique Eugene Belin in Paris in 1892.

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1893

In 'L'Annee Preparatoire de Travail Manuel' by M P Martin, which was published by Armand Collin & Cie in Paris in 1893, as the 'Petit Bateau'.

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As 'Barque simple' in the 2nd July 1983 issue of 'Journal des Instituteurs'. This is extracted from the book 'Le Travail Manuel a L'ecole Primaire, by M. Coste et J. Lapassade, which had been published in 1887.

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As 'La lancha' in 'Cuestiones de Pedagogía Práctica: Medios de Instruir' by D Vicente Castro Legua, which was published by Libreria de la Viuda de la Hernando y Ca in Madrid in 1893.

No folding instructions are given but the drawing reappears in 'El trabajo manual escolar' by Vicente Casto Legua in the January 1907 issue of the Spanish magazine 'La Escuela Moderna' which was published in Madrid by Los Sucesores de Hernando, where the instructions explain that it is to be folded from a square.

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1895

In 'L'enseignement manuel dans les ecoles du degre primaire (garcons)' by Rene Leblanc, which was published by Librairie Larousse in Paris in 1895

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As 'Le Bateau Plat' (Flat Boat) or Barque in 'Geometrie, Dessin et Travaux Manuels - Cours Moyen', produced under the direction of M E. Cazes, which was published by Librairie Ch. Delagrave in Paris in 1895.

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1896

In Eleonore Heerwart's 'Course in Paperfolding', which was first published in Dutch in 1895 then in English by Charles and Dible in London and Glasgow in 1896.

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1899

In 'Le Livre des Amusettes' by Toto, which was published in Paris by Charles Mendel in 1899.

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1900

In 'Die Frobelschen Beschaftigungen: Das Falten' by Marie Muller-Wunderlich was published by Friedrich Brandstetter in Leipzig in 1900.

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In 'What Shall We Do Now?, by Edward Verral Lucas and Elizabeth Lucas, which was published by Frederick A Stokes Company in New York in 1900.

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1904

As 'Barco' (Boat) in 'Guia Practica del Trabajo Manual Educativo' by Ezequiel Solana, which was published by Editorial Magisterio Español in Madrid in 1904.

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This book also contains a variation of the Paper Boat design called 'Barca con Tres Mastiles' (Boat with Three Masts).

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1905

As 'botecito' in a illustration in the Buenos Aires edition of the magazine 'Caras y Caretas', Issue 238, of 25th March 1905.

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1907

As 'Lancha' (boat) in an article titled 'El trabajo manual escolar' by Vicente Casto Legua in the January 1907 issue of the Spanish magazine 'La Escuela Moderna' which was published in Madrid by Los Sucesores de Hernando. In this case, somewhat unusually, the design is folded from a square.

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This French postcard showing a girl playing with Paper Boats was in circulation in 1907.

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1908

The last ever issue of the Catalan satirical magazine 'La Campana Catalana', published in Barcelona on 29th April 1908, in a cartoon by Apeles Mestres which pictures a variety of paperfolding designs. This pictorial story had previously been published in his Llibre Vert III in 1883.

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1910

Two versions of the Paper Boat, called 'Dory 2' and 'Dory 3', one from a square and the other from an oblong, are explained in 'Studies in Invalid Occupation' by Susan E Tracy, which was published by Whitcomb and Barrows in Boston in 1910.

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1920

In 'Paper Magic' by Will Blyth, first published by C Arthur Pearson in London in 1920. This Paper Boat is developed from a version of the Newspaper Hat in which the corners have been partly turned up to improve the shape. This method gives the boat a smaller hull and a larger sail.

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1928

In 'Fun with Paperfolding' by William D Murray and Francis J Rigney, which was published by the Fleming H Revell Company, New York in 1928.

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1933

'Jeux de pliages' by Ferdinand Krch, which was published by Flammarion in 1933, contains a method of developing a Paper Boat from a Pyramidal Hat (Chapeau de Gendarme) folded from a square. Information from Michel Grand.

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1936

In 'Paper Toy Making' by Margaret Campbell, which was first published by Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd in London, probably in 1937, although both the Foreword and Preface are dated 1936, which argues that the book was complete at that date.

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1939

In 'El Mundo de Papel' by Dr Nemesio Montero, which was published by G Miranda in Edicions Infancia in Valladolid in 1939

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1940

As 'Barquito Comun' in 'El Plegado y Cartonaje en la Escuela Primaria' by Antonio M Luchia and Corina Luciani de Luchia, which was published by Editorial Kapelusz in Buenos Aires in 1940.

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In 'At Home Tonight' by Herbert McKay, which was published by Oxford University Press in London, New York and Toronto in 1940, contains diagrams for the Paper Boat (but folded from a square) and several variations with sails or mast.

A Ship - The Paper Boat (but folded from a square)

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A Boat with a Sail

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A Triangular Sail

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A Ship with a Mast

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1956

In 'Paper Magic' by Robert Harbin, which was published by Oldbourne in London in 1956.

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The Paper Boat Hat

1906

This picture is of the cover for the 24th June 1906 issue, in fact the first ever issue, of the Italian (Florence) children's magazine 'Giornalino della Domenica'.

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1932

The Paper Boat appeared as 'A Paper Cocked Hat' in 'Winter Nights Entertainments' by R M Abraham, which was published by Constable and Constable in London in 1932.

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1951

The 1951 Rupert Annual contains an article entitled 'How To Make A Paper Man'. The paper man in question is pictured wearing a Paper Boat Hat.

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